Different Types of Gemstones

Different gemstones
Written by Irfan Qureshi

Different varieties and types of gemstones have been identified, and they have also been classified into many different categories, so a collector or gem enthusiast can easily add some spice to his/her list of collection. Usually, gemstones are classified into precious and semi-precious categories, but some of it has such a composition and structure that it becomes quite difficult to organize them. However, most of them can be easily distinguished and here are some favorite kinds of precious and semi-precious gemstones.

Types of Precious stones



Diamond is no doubt the king of the gemstone kingdom which has been ruling not only on gemstones world but also on human hearts for quite some time. Diamond is also quite well known as the hardest natural substance. It’ s the most precious gemstone in the world at present.

Physical – Magnifies effects of other stones, rebalancing the metabolism, and building up stamina
Emotional – It brings love and clarity to partnerships and bonding relationships
Spiritual – Promotes awakening of the visionary states and brings clarity of mind

Diamond is known as one of the colorless hardest of all substances. Despite being colorless one can find a diamond in yellow, brown, blue, green, red, pink, and orange. People tend to use diamond either for its value or fame, and protection. It is said that Diamonds help with qualities such as victory, courage, faithfulness, enhancement of love and purity. Wearing diamond on daily life can intensify one’s ability to focus consciousness on manifesting one’s goals and dreams. Diamond crystals are worn with other types of gemstones such as Moldavite, Phenacite, Azeztulite and many more.



Ruby is one of the most loved, and the name comes from Latin word “ruber” which means red. The beautiful red color of ruby is because of chromium element.

Physical – Stimulates health in all organs and systems
Emotional – Inspire self-confidence, zest for life, trust and willingness
Spiritual –  Teaches courage and altruism, brings forth heroism

Ruby harmonizes with other types of gemstones such as Blue Sapphire, Rose Quartz, Morganite, and Cuprite. Ruby is also known to be the stone of courage, passion, strength and assist one in dealing with anxiety. The value and quality of ruby are defined by its color, cut, place, and clarity. Myanmar has been world’s main source of Ruby for centuries. However, one can find Ruby in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Brazil, Australia, Tajikistan, Tanzania, the USA, and more.



Sapphire is one of the top four precious gemstones that are highly valued and used in jewelry. It is most loved in blue color. However, it does come in other colors such as yellow, pink, white, orange, purple and more. Sapphire is known as the stone of awareness, discipline, love, and forgiveness. It is the stone that does not go out of fashion and neither lose its value. The name Sapphire is taken from “Safir” which is a Persian word. The beautiful blue color is used in a different variety of engagement rings.

Physical – helps with a headache, vertigo, earache, vision problems
Emotional – encourages inner strength and confidence
Spiritual –  enhances psychic abilities, mental, and insight

Blue Sapphire can be worn with several types of gemstones such as lapis lazuli, Azurite, Lazurite, and Rose Quartz. Kashmir has worlds high premium Sapphire; however, it is also mined in other countries such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, East Africa, Madagascar, and more.

Ruby and Sapphire are the two varieties of Corundum. Corundum is known as the second hardest types of gemstone in the world. Corundum is reckoned a composition of different trace minerals and aluminum oxide. Different kinds of corundum take their form due to trace minerals. Sapphires and rubies are two popular examples of this type of gemstones.



The purest crystalline emanation of the green ray is seen only in Emerald, which makes it one of the most valuable and expensive precious stones. Emeralds come in bluish-green color as well, but it is most valuable if they come in deep green color. Rubies and Emeralds are rare precious stones and depending on the quality factors; they are worth higher than diamonds.

Physical -Supports the heart, blood, and circulatory system
Emotional – opens the heart to love, forgiveness, compassion, and trust
Spiritual –  Facilitates the awakening to divine love

People refer to the Emerald as “the healer stone,” as it brings harmony and balance. Emeralds have been famous during Egyptian times and mined for centuries. They are found in South America and Columbia for centuries. However, one of the most premium deep green colors of rough emerald is only located in Panjshir Valley of Afghanistan.

Types of semi-precious stones

There are more than 200 semi-precious stones, and we will go over the most common and used gemstones that are used in jewelry. All types of gemstones are valuable; however, the rarity of a gemstone adds to its value. Semi-precious stones are not as rare as precious stone such as Diamond, Emerald, and Sapphire, Therefore, they are named as semi-precious, even though they are valuable on their own and can worth higher if compared in premium quality with other precious gemstones.

Aside from these well-known types of gemstones, many other precious and semi-precious gemstones including beryl, jade, feldspar, lapis lazuli, topaz, peridot is widely being used in different decorative items and jewelry.

Types of quartz gemstones (crystals)

Quartz is considered the most common form of mineral in the world. It is available in a wide range of colors. Quartz is abundantly found, but it is still considered a valuable gemstone, and the reason is that it’s quite hard to find flawless and perfect quartz to use in jewelry and other decorative items. Clear Quartz is also known as Rock Crystals and is found on every continent.



Amethyst is one of the most loved and famous members of the Quartz family with a pale to deep purple color. The purple color is due to the trace amounts of iron and aluminum. Most people refer to Amethyst as the stone of protection and purification.

Physical – overcoming addictions, nerve disorders, helps with blood oxygenation
Emotional – clear negative thoughts, influences, and attachments
Spiritual – facilitates conscious connection with spirit guides, angles, and source

Many people use Amethyst as a decorative piece or in jewelry and believe that wearing one helps to maintain inner peace, and energy field in a state of balance and well-being. Amethyst is popular among Catholic community, and their bishops wear the amethyst ring. The color symbolizes royalty and many Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, and Romans would decorate their crowns, scepters, and rings with Amethyst.



Citrine is a member of Quartz and silicon dioxide mineral family. The yellow color is from the iron, and the word Citrine comes from French word Citron which means lemon.

Physical – Energetically supports digestion, metabolism, weight loss
Emotional – Stimulates optimism, playfulness, decisiveness under challenging situations
Spiritual – Enhances creative imagination, manifestation through the will

Citrine is very popular among women and highly used for jewelry. Women love to have big citrine stone on their rings as it is much more affordable than a big diamond stone, and Hollywood celebrities are seen wearing it.

Smoky Quartz

Smokey Quartz

Smokey Quartz is some popular types of gemstones that has never historically been an extraordinary gem. Smokey Quartz has become quite popular as it is widely available and affordable. The color is from light brown to dark chocolate brown and translucent black.

Physical – offers protection from radiation, supports healing from sunburn, dissolves cramps, and strengthens the back
Emotional – Helps people feel positively engaged with real life
Spiritual – Protective and grounding, brings calmness, relieving stress and anxiety

Smokey Quartz beads, rings are favorite in jewelry, and a sphere or rock form of it is utilized for home decor as a decorative rock or crystal. Smokey quartz is discovered in many countries and is famous in reiki or meditation. It is recognized for protecting our surrounding environment from negative energies.

Rose Quartz

Rose Quartz

Rose Quartz is the pure stone of love for oneself, one’s partner, children, family, friends, earth, universe and the divine. Rose Quartz color is taken from its name and is one of the stones of the great mother. It links one’s personal heart to the heart of the earth and the universe. Meditators love it as it harmonizes well with different types of gemstones.

Physical -supports the heart in healing trauma and or disease
Emotional – heal past wounds and teaches trust and hope
Spiritual -promotes the piousness of love, links heart with soul and the universe

Rose Quartz is mostly combined in use with other types of gemstones for jewelry making. Romans, Greeks, and Egyptian civilizations were the first to use and admire Rose Quartz. They would wear this stone in the event of celebration and happiness or give it as a gift of love to their beloved. Unlike other quartz, one can find the Rose quartz in massive sizes, and it is scarce to see small quantities with the right color.

Aquamarine Alme Erno
By Alme Erno


The beautiful blue or blue-green Aquamarine crystal is a member of the Beryl family. The name is chosen from the Latin word “aqua marinus” which means “water of the sea,” and it refers to the clarity and ocean-like color of this beautiful crystal. Since ancient times Sailors used this stone as the stone of courage that brings fearlessness, luck, and protection. In recent times, Aquamarine is used for crystal healing, meditation, Reiki, jewelry, as a home decor item and more.

Physical – helps with sore throats and throat conditions, inflammatory illnesses
Emotional – useful for calming anger, relieving stress, expressing real emotions
Spiritual -speaking one’s most profound truth, meeting divine feminine

For women, Aquamarine lends the courage and clarity to express one’s inner knowing and enhances intuitive abilities. However, for men, Aquamarine helps dismiss insensitivity, and the difficulty men sometimes experience in communicating their feelings. The stone is from the water element; therefore, it is often referred to as the stone of relaxing, soothing and clearing communication. It is believed the presence of this stone removes past fear, verbal abuse, and unbalanced emotions.

Tourmaline Eric Hunt
By Eric Hunt


The beautiful crystal is referred to as the Rainbow stone for its diversity in color.  One can find Tourmaline in almost seven rainbow colors (yellow, red, black, pink, green, blue, golden, brown, white clear and more). The different variety of colors and affordability is what made the Tourmaline quite favorite among gemstone enthusiasts. Every shade of tourmaline carries their different healing elements or properties as follows:


Black-supports purification of the body, eliminating toxic substances
Pink-supports the heart, lungs, and parasympathetic nervous system
Red-supports with heart health and recovery from a heart attack
Blue- healing spirits and headaches
Green- Supports healthy heart functions
Yellow- assists healing of digestive and bowel problems, nausea, ulcers
Brown- detach from self-judgment, overcoming addictions, and body purification


Black- dismiss fears, worry, anger, judgment, shame and toxic emotions
Pink- repairs holes in the auric field from bad memories and restore a sense of wholeness.
Red- brings sensitivity, passion, and enjoyment in life
Blue- clear expression of deep thoughts and feelings
Green- achieve inner peace, brings harmony and wholeness
Yellow-dismiss fear and encourages personal power
Brown- promote self-acceptance and self-love


Black- benefits with grounding and cleansing of the energy field
Pink- encourages one to become a living beacon of love energies
Red- enhances capacity to make and fulfill commitments inspired by love
Blue- opens the mind to higher awareness
Green- helps people to enjoy life in their real life
Yellow- helps create prosperity, self-worth, and positive attitude
Brown-powerful ally for healing and integrating one’s dark side

Kunzite mineral2150
By mineral2150


Kunzite is the palest pink to light violet hue crystal, which forms naturally as colorless, pink, yellow and green crystals. Kunzite forms in colorful crystals and vertical striations. Kunzite is named after the American mineralogist George Frederick Kunz (1) who first found the stone. The soft pink ray of kunzite opens the heart to the energies of love, interpersonal love, love for humanity, animal, plants, and self-love. Women are seen wearing kunzite as a piece of jewelry or use it for meditation.

Physical – eases stress and supports the parasympathetic nervous system
Emotional – aids one in becoming receptive to love and energy
Spiritual – Connects one to the power of love

Women love this specific stone and gift it to first-time mothers, single mothers and even girls who newly enter puberty. It is believed that kunzite helps women love their changing body and promote self-acceptance and self-love. The primary deposits of kunzite are in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Brazil, Madagascar, and California.



Peridot is a magnesium iron silicate, and the color is olive to lime green. Peridot is sometimes mistaken as Emerald because of the green color; however, peridot is not as rare as emerald and common mineral widely available. Peridot assists one in reestablishing a sense of self-worth if guilt or regret for past deeds plagues one.

Physical – supports the heart with the circulatory system and help one quit smoking
Emotional – inspires one feel happy and worthy, brings a sense of well-being
Spiritual – quiets fear, encourage generosity and create abundance

Peridot has a long, fascinating history, in the ancient world peridot main source was St. John’s Island. It is believed that people in the island would be forced to collect this gem for Pharaoh’s treasury. The name is taken from the French word “peritot” meaning gold and is the National gem of Egypt. Egyptians often refer to this stone as “gem of the sun.”

Chrysoberyl Ian Brown
By Ian Brown


Chrysoberyl is also quite well known for its hardness that has higher quantities of beryllium in it. It’s a nice-looking gemstone that offers green and yellow shades, and they also tend to change colors in different kinds of light. Alexandrite and Cat’s eye are too well-known chrysoberyls that are widely used in different types of jewelry.

Physical – energetically support heart, kidneys, and bloodstream
Emotional – encourages generosity and altruism
Spiritual –  introduces power through gentleness, prosperity, kindness, and prophecy

Chrysoberyl helps us in merging and unifying the energies of the solar plexus and the heart, bringing empowerment of the will, under the guidance of the heart’s compassionate wisdom.

I am text block. Click edit button to change this text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Types of rock gemstones

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli is king of all stones and one of the most valuable rock gemstone in the industry. The name is taken from Latin word meaning “the blue stone.” and also taken from the Arabic word “Lajaward” which is the name of stone in Persian, the place where lapis was first mined. Lapis contains lazurite (the blue part), calcite (the white part), and pyrite (the gold part). Lapis has been in use since ancient times; it was used to decorate the Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. Therefore, it is referred to as the stone of royalty and holiness. One of the finest and best lapis comes from Afghanistan.

Physical – boosts the immune system, purifies the blood, and aid to lower blood pressure
Emotional – helps releases stress, bring harmony and encourage inner self-knowledge, and self-awareness,
Spiritual –  enhances telepathy, past-life recall, visionary awareness, and deepens meditation

Lapis with its beautiful rich blue color is worn as pendants or beads, used for building material in forms of lapis tiles, countertops, Lapis fireplaces and more. It adds value to your home and well-being and surrounding one’s environment with lapis enhances intellectual ability, making one a better learner and teacher. One can see the amazing work of Lapis in De Mairo, who is the leading company in supplying Lapis Lazuli and have more than 20 years of experience in the field.

Jade stone


Jade is shared by two distinctly different minerals- Nephrite and Jadeite, where both are very tough stones and have a strongly bonded crystal structures. For thousands of years, Jade has been in use for jewelry and carvings of sacred religious figures. China has favored Jade more than any other stone and uses it to carve dragons and other holy scriptures.

The primary source of Jade has been Myanmar, which carries the best Jade and has been supplying China for more 200 years up to date.

Unlike other stones where the darker color makes them valuable, a translucent white jade is a more valuable and almost equivalent value to diamond. Jade is a very strong rock mineral which comes in different color ranges of green and blue, to yellow, red, white, lavender, gray, and black.


Green- strengthen the heart and overall health
Purple- soothe the nervous system and alleviate symptoms brought on by stress
Red- Manage all body systems and increase chi
Lavender- eases stress and brings the body into harmony with one’s refined blueprint
Blue- assist in calming inflammation, swelling, arthritic conditions, and asthma
Black- protect the body from illnesses, parasites, especially recommended when traveling


Green- increases love, calms the mind and remove negative thoughts
Purple- become more tolerant, loving, and wise, promote creativity and practicality
Red- boosts determination in overcoming difficulties
Lavender- encourages a state of serenity or calmness and benevolence
Blue- lighten the body and keep it calm during a stressful situation
Black- assist in-house cleaning to get rid of fears, anger, hatred, doubt and destructive emotions


Green- assist one to enjoy life without becoming too attached to the material world
Purple-helps regulate the auric field, enhances dreams and visions
Red- balance vibration of wisdom and brings energy if a warrior
Lavender- improve visionary state, and allow to release suppressed anger
Blue- stimulates psychic abilities, sensitivity, and activation of  higher vibrations
Black- clears one’s aura of vulnerability to attachments by negative forces, protection for psychic



Jasper was a precious stone in the ancient times, and the name means “spotted or speckled stone.” People love Jasper for its beautiful colors such as white, black, orange, yellow, brown, green, and sometimes blue. The vibrant dark color is due to the iron, and people usually dye it into other colors too.

Physical – boosts recovery from weakness due to illness, liver health, and body detoxifications
Emotional – overcoming grief or depression, calms fears and worry
Spiritual – ground and organize the mind, deep connection with nature

The stone has spotted, ringed and striped patterns, which makes it very interesting to use as countertops, wall decor, tiles, etc. the geographical area where the stone is found has a direct impact on the formation and patterns in the stone.

Types of organic gemstones

Some organic gemstones are also quite well known for their matchless beauty, and vibrant colors, pearls, and amber are two well-known examples of these natural gemstones which do not occur in the mineral source but have an organic source instead. Various kinds of organic gemstones are widely used in different types of jewelry and other decorative items.



Everyone treasures the beautiful pearls for thousands of years, and unlike other types of gemstones, the pearl is formed in fresh salt water under the sea. Therefore, it is referred to as the organic gemstone. It is not a rock or mineral specimen and is formed in clams, oysters, mussels and more. Everyone has treasured Pearls since ancient times, and kings or Queens have valued it. The natural finest quality of pearls is valued as the gemstone, and the color varies from white to pink, blue, brown, gray and black.

Pearls are often mentioned in the religious scriptures such as Quran which states “dwellers of paradise will be adorned with pearls,” and likewise in the Christian and Hebrew Scriptures, pearls are compared to heavens.

Jet Gemstone rocksncrystals
By rocksncrystals


Jet comes in black or dark brown color, which is a combination of carbon plus hydrocarbon compounds. It comes from a fossilized wood and looks like coal but much harder and durable. Roman Catholic churches have used jet as part of the Cross in the form of beads. It has a fascinating history, but it only became popular in the recent times and is seen as part of jewelry, mostly seen in Spain and European countries.

Physical – protects the body, heals energy leaks in the aura, aids in energetic cleaning of liver and kidneys
Emotional – clears harmful attachments
Spiritual –  protection and purification of one’s atmosphere from negative influences

Jet is a neutralizer of negative energies and offers psychic protection from negative influences. Jet can be combined with other gemstones such as Garnet, Smokey Quartz, Serpentine, etc.



Amber just like Jet is a fossilized natural botanic resin, which is a mixture of hydrocarbons. The name is taken from Arabic word “Amber” for having a similar color. Color ranges from yellow to brown and reddish brown, and it is often transparent.

Physical – increase the functioning of organs and systems, increase life force
Emotional – release fear of judgment, finding inner freedom
Spiritual –  protection from negative influences

Amber has been a religious object in the old times, and it was believed that burying amber with the dead would protect them in the afterlife. Since the ancient Greeks, Amber is used for personal adornment and its talismanic properties. Amber works well with Jet and promotes health and protection from negativity.

List of gemstones specification chart


What types of gemstones are there?

All gemstones are categorized into precious, semi-precious, rock and organic gemstones based on the color, cut, formation, and other factors. There are different kinds and types of gemstones that are discovered worldwide, which is categorized into over 300 types of minerals including (Carnelian, Calcite, Sapphire, Ruby, Diamond, Amethyst, Tourmaline, Citrine and more). There are also Rock minerals that are in use as gemstones such as lapis lazuli, Jasper, Jade, and more. There are also organic gemstones that are either from fossilized wood or the sea such as pearls, Jet, Amber, Petrified wood and more.

What are the most expensive types of gemstones?

According to the recent research in 2018, the most expensive types of gemstone is the Blue Diamond worth $3.93 million per carat, and the second most expensive is Musgravite worth $35,000 per carat. The list of gemstones follows:

Jadeite – $20,000 per carat
Alexandrite – $12,000 per carat
Red Beryl – $10,000 per carat
Padparadscha Sapphire – $8,000 per carat
Benitoite – $3,800 per carat
Black Opal – $3,500 per carat
Demantoid Garnet – $3,300 per carat
Taaffeite – $2,500 per car

What types of gemstones help with anxiety?

There are many stones that help with anxiety and here are the top four gemstones that help with anxiety:

  1. Jet stone – which is a result of fossilized wood and helps to release negative energies and sensations including fear, anxiety, stress, and anger.
  2. Blue Lace Agate – With its beautiful and soothing color, the blue lace agate is known as one of the best crystals to calm mind and nerves to reduce your anxiety.
  3. Lepidolite- The purplish or lavender color of the Lepidolite is effective in calming nerves, helping one to release stress and live with a peaceful mind.
  4. Black Tourmaline – Is one of the best crystals to help dispel worry, stress, anxiety, fear, shame and other toxic feelings.

Which gemstones are black?

The following are some of the black gemstones:

  1. black onyx
  2. black tourmaline
  3. black diamond
  4. spinel
  5. diopside
  6. black opal

How gemstones get their colors?

Every stone is different on how they absorb light and what trace of elements they contain. Every stone color is a result of how they absorb wavelengths of light and what trace of minerals or elements they contain. Some of the most common traces of elements are such as beryllium, chromium, copper, lithium, manganese, sulfur, titanium, and vanadium.

Which gemstones can be used as building materials and who makes them?

Since majority of gemstones have a hardness above four, they can all be used for architectural building materials. We can see the use of gemstones in luxury hotels, malls, airports, museums, casinos, and luxury spas. Some gemstones are widely available and cut by waterjet machines into architectural designs for luxury homes, however, not everyone is an expert to do so. De Mairo is one of the well-known company for cutting Lapis lazuli and dealing in high end residential luxury interior and exterior projects, supplying Lapis tiles, countertops, bathtubs, swimming pools, and more.


  2. The Pocket book of stones by Robert Simmons

About the author

Irfan Qureshi

Muhammad Irfan is the founder of De Mairo Ltd, a company that has been manufacturing gemstones and luxury architectural building materials for the past 20 years. De Mairo products have graced many palaces, luxury homes, spas, hotels, yacht, and private aircraft.

Muhammad sources raw lapis lazili stones to manufacture lapis lazuli tiles, sinks, swimming pools, jewelry and different crafts for exterior and interior uses and also make the world’s finest-quality of ultramarine lapis lazuli pigment—everything imaginable with lapis—for a global clientele.

Apart from his gemstones business, Muhammad is the co-author on many online platforms, blogging about his passion for Traveling, Natural health products, Fishing, and Sports.

Muhammad is a fun-loving entrepreneur from Pakistan, based in Canada. You can add him on LinkedIn @IrfanDemairo


Leave a Comment